The final step, fabrication, involves finishing the carrier bags by means of folding, stamping, bonding or heat-sealing, depending on the handle design. Blocking and perforations, which are commonly used e.g. for tear-off bags or knot bags, can also be added.
However, these are not the only options available during fabrication. For example, freezer carrier bags (made of plastic) and rain-flap bags are given their characteristic injection-moulded handles at this stage.
During the fabrication process, cotton or synthetic fabrics are sewn into cotton and long-life carrier bags respectively, and can have special labels (hang tags) added on request. Long-life carrier bags in woven designs can also be laminated with an additional layer.